LEADERSHIP STYLES AND INFLUENCE PROCESS
The objectives of this Unit are to:
• introduce you to various leadership styles,
• familiarise you with various theories and styles of leadership, and
• create an awareness that leadership is a process of shared influence on the work group.
In giving the input on leadership styles and influence process to you, we presume our main aim is to understand and improve your style of functioning as a leader.
To start, with, you must have clear ideas as to what is meant by leadership. Leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. As you can see, this process is a function of the leader, the followers and the situation. In any situation where you are trying to influence the behaviour of another individual or group, leadership is operating. Thus each one of us tries leadership at one time or the other, whether our activities are centred around a business, educational institution, hospital, political organisation, Government organisation or a family. As part of this process, one who attempts to influence the behaviour of others becomes a potential leader and the persons he or she is attempting to influence are the potential followers. This may happen irrespective of the fact that the leader may be their boss or a colleague (associate) or a subordinate or a friend or a relative. In other words through a style of functioning he or she influences attitudes and expectations, which in turn encourage or discourage the follower’s activity or achievement, enhance or diminish the follower’s commitment to the work, etc.
In our day-to-day life, we come across instances of how people are influenced by the activities or words of a person who is trying to lead them. We always make judgements about the leaders in our own office. In our mind, we make a difference between a good leader and a bad one, by judging the style or way of functioning and the influence on others. Hence, in understanding the phenomenon of leadership, we must first understand the various styles of the leaders.
15.2 LEADERSHIP STYLES
The word style is the way in which the leader influences followers. Let us have a look at the various studies that help us to understand the leadership styles.
1) Hawthorne Studies
Mayo and Roethlisberger did a series of studies from 1924 to 1932 in an electricity company, at Illinois, in USA. These studies are known as Hawthorne Studies.
One phase of these studies aimed at finding out if changes in illumination, rest period and lunch breaks can affect the productivity of the workers. It was found to the surprise of the researchers that less light, shorter and fewer rest periods and shorter lunch breaks resulted in an increase in productivity. And once all these changes were eliminated and the normal working conditions were resumed, it was also seen that the worker’s productivity and the feeling of being together went up. The increase in productivity was attributed to the attitude of workers towards each other and their feeling of togetherness. In addition, attention paid to the workers by the researches made them feel important which resulted in improvement in their work performance. This is known as Hawthorne effect. These findings made Mayo and Roethlisberger conclude that a leader has not only to plan, decide, organise, lead and control but also consider the human element. This includes social needs of being together and being recognised for the work interaction of the group members with each other and their well being. A good leader ought to keep the above aspects in his or her style of working with people and supervising their work.
2) Theory X and Y
McGregor (1960) categorised leadership styles into two broad categories having two different beliefs and assumptions about subordinates. He called these Theory X and Theory Y.
The Theory X style of leaders believe that most people dislike work and will avoid it wherever possible. Such leaders feel they themselves are a small but important group, who want to lead and take responsibility, but a large majority of people want to be directed and avoid responsibility. Therefore, this style of leadership exercises strong controls and direction and wherever necessary punish people if they do not do the work. If people do the work as desired, they may even get monetary or other rewards.
Theory Y leaders assume that people will work hard and assume responsibility if they can satisfy their personal needs and the objectives or goals of their organisation. Such leaders do not sharply distinguish between the leaders and the followers in contrast to Theory X style. They feel that people control themselves within rather than being controlled by others from outside such as a leader or a manager or a supervisor.
An effective leader needs to examine carefully his or her own ideas about the motivation and behaviour of subordinates and others, as well as the situation, before adopting a particular style of leadership.
3) Iowa Leadership Studies
In 1939 Lippitt and White under the direction of Lewin, did a study on three different styles of leadership in the task performance of ten-year old boys in three groups. The authoritarian leader of the group was very directive. He did not allow any participation. He was concerned about the task and told the followers what to do and how to do it. He was friendly while praising the performance of the individual member and was impersonal while criticising the individual member. In the other group, the democratic leader encouraged discussion with the group and allowed participation in making decision. He shared his leadership responsibilities with his followers and involved them in the planning and execution of the tasks. The Laissez-faire leader of the third group gave complete freedom to the group and did not provide any leadership. He did not establish any policies or procedures to do the task. Each member was let alone. No one attempted to influence the other.
The researchers selected boys of the same intelligence level. Each group did the same task of making paper masks or model air – planes or murals or soap cravings. The room used by the three groups remained the same. The three group leaders assumed different styles as they shifted every six weeks from group to group. The researchers under the direction of Lewin, who did several studies on group, were trying to see how different styles of leadership could change the satisfaction, frustration −aggression levels of the individuals. One definite finding was that nineteen out of twenty boys liked the democratic leadership style. That kind of a leader never tried to boss over them, yet they had plenty to do. The only boy who liked authoritarian style kind of leadership happened to be the son of an army officer. It was also observed that seven out of ten boys preferred the laissez- faire leader to the autocratic one as they preferred confusion and disorder to strictness and rigidity present in the autocratic style. Boys under the latter style exhibited more of aggressive, hostile and indifferent
behaviour as compared to their counterparts under other styles of leadership. They either showed hostility or cracked jokes about hostility towards others. Others belonging to the democratic style of leadership showed less aggressive and more indifferent behaviour when brought under the autocratic style of leader. Even under the laissez-faire style of the leader, boys committed more aggressive acts than the ones under the democratic style.
Of course, a study on ten year old boys in making paper masks or soap carving, etc. cannot be compared to leader behaviour of adults with complex jobs. But like the studies of Mayo and Roethlisberger, the studies by Lewin, Lippitt and White are a pioneering effort in understanding leadership styles from the point of scientific methodology. They also throw light on how different styles of leadership can produce different complex reactions from the same or similar groups.
4) Michigan Studies on Leadership Styles
Likert (1961) at University of Michigan Survey Research Centre identified two major styles of leadership orientations− employee orientation and production orientation. The employee oriented style of the leader emphasises the relationship aspect of the jobs of the individual. Such a leader takes interest in every one and accepts the individuality and personal needs of the individual. He or she has complete confidence and trust in all matters in his or her subordinates. His or her subordinates feel free to discuss things about their jobs with their superior. He or she always asks subordinates for ideas and opinions and always tries to make constructive use of them.
The production oriented style of the leader emphasises production and technical aspects of the job. He or she looks at subordinates or employees as tools to accomplish the goals of the organisation. Work, working condition and work methods are tried to be understood better in this style of the leadership orientation. Likert related these orientations to the performance of the employees. He showed that the employee oriented style brought high-producing performance compared to production-oriented style. Of course, the satisfaction of employees was not directly related to productivity in Likert’s study.
5) Ohio State Studies on Leadership Styles
Stogdill (1957) at the Bureau of Business Research at Ohio State University initiated a series of researches on leadership in 1945. He, along with his colleagues, studied leader behaviour in numerous types of groups and situations by using a Leader Behaviour Description Questionnaire (LBDQ). The studies were conducted on Air Force Commanders and members of bomber crews, officers, non-commissioned personnel, civilian administrators in the Navy Department, manufacturing supervisors, executives, teachers, principals and school superintendents and leaders of various civilian groups. They did not have any satisfactory definition of leaderships. They also did not think leadership is synonymous with ‘good’ leadership. The LBDQ was administered in a wide variety of situations and surprisingly two dimensions of leadership continually emerged from the study: one is ‘consideration’ and the other is ‘initiating structure’.
Consideration reflects the extent to which individuals are likely to have job relationship characterised by mutual respect for subordinates, ideas and consideration of subordinates feelings. You may like to describe it as the behaviour of the leader indicating friendship, mutual trust, respect and warmth in the relationship between the leader and his or her group members.
Initiating structure reflects the extent to which individuals are likely to define and structure their roles and those of their subordinates towards goal attainment. In other words, it is the behaviour of the leader which deals with the relationship between himself or herself and the work-group and tries to establish well-defined patterns of organisation, channels of communication and method of procedure.
Examples of observed behaviour of the leader under consideration and initiating structure are as follows:
Consideration Initiating Structure
The leader find time to listen to group The leader assigns group members to
members ( ) particular tasks ( )
The leader is willing to make change ( ) The leader asks the group members to
follow standards rules and regulations ( )
The leader is friendly and approachable ( ) The leader lets group members know what is
expected of them ( )
One can do this exercise by observing and judging the behaviour of the leader in a work situation.
6) Scientific Manager’s Style
Taylor (1911) emphasised the importance of having management and labour work in harmony to maximise profits. The basis of his scientific management was technological in nature. It was felt that the best way to increase output was to improve the techniques or methods used by workers. Therefore, profit can be maximised by using a systematic and scientifically based approach to the study of jobs. Though, Taylor was not trained as a manager, he relied on scientific study of time and movement spent and used for a job to improve the performance of the worker. According to the scientific managerial style, management of a work organisation must be divorced from human affairs and emotions and people have to adjust to the management and not management to the people. Once jobs are recognised with efficiency in mind, the economic self-interest of the workers could be satisfied through various incentive work plans such as piece rate system of payment, etc. The leader is assumed to be the most competent individual in planning and organising the work of subordinates according to Taylor’s principle of scientific management.
Various studies reflecting different styles of functioning of a leader have been stated above, which highlight how the leader simultaneously pays attention to the:
a) task to be accomplished by the group, and
b) needs and expectations of the group and its individual members.
Exactly how the leader goes about attending to these two functions is a matter of his or her leadership style. Many theories have been suggested by the researchers regarding which leadership style is most effective. Even the above two functions can have different descriptions for different leaders. But in course of time every leader develops a particular style which reflects his or her own ideas and perspectives on the relative importance of task and people. However, the effectiveness of the leadership style is also dependent on the environment and organisational structure of the organisation.
We should now consider in what ways we can enrich the understanding of various styles of leadership by making ourselves familiar with some important theories of leadership.
1) Discuss theory X and Y of leadership.
2) Why should a tourism professional study leadership styles?
15.3 LEADERSHIP THEORIES
In this Section we discuss certain theories related to leadership.
1) Trait Theory
This theory as described by Kelly (1974) attempts to classify what personal characteristics such as physical, personality and mental, are associated with leadership success. Trait theory relies on research that relates various traits to the success of a leader. A lengthy list of traits has been made to describe an effective leader in terms of certain characteristics. A board classification of six categories of traits is given below:
1. Physical characteristics of the leader, such as age, height, weight.
2. Background characteristics i.e. education, social status, mobility and experience.
3. Intelligence i.e. ability, judgement, knowledge.
4. Personality i.e. aggressiveness, alertness, dominance, decisiveness, enthusiasm, extroversion independence, self-confidence, authoritarianism.
5. Task-oriented characteristics i.e. achievement need, responsibility, initiative, persistence.
6. Social characteristics i.e. supervisory ability, cooperativeness, popularity, prestige, tact, diplomacy.
These characteristics according to some people are considered valid indicators of successful leaders, but if you compare leaders by various physical personality and intelligence traits, you may find very little agreement on these. Some findings point out to the fact that leaders are intelligent individuals. But they do not provide any clue as to the whether leaders are brighter than their followers or are as close to them in intelligence. Again, some of the personality traits are overlapping with each other. Therefore, you need to be cautious in stating, personality or any other characteristic as a cause of successful leadership. You must ask the questions: Who is a successful leader? Is he or she far superior physically ? Is he or she far brighter ? Is he or she more mature as a person? Is he or she more motivated to achieve his or her goal? Does he or she have more consideration for his or her followers? etc. Some of the traits may describe a successful leader but predicting successful leaders on the basis of traits alone is not a correct approach. The followers have a significant effect on the job accomplished by the leader. Trait theory completely ignores the followers and the situations that also help a leader to be successful. Secondly, we should also weigh in our own mind, which of the objectives, ‘confident’ or ‘independent’ or ‘intelligent’ is relatively more important in becoming a successful leader. You may observe one or all the above traits as important in a successful leader whereas your friend may feel that an enthusiastic, aggressive and authoritarian person is a good leader. To be more objective, traits of the person as well as demand of the situation together determine the effectiveness of the leader.
2) Group and Exchange Theories of Leadership
These theories as reported by Hollandder and Julian (1969) state that the leader provides more benefits or regards than burden or costs for followers who help him or her achieve the goal of the organisation. There must be a positive exchange between the leader and followers in order for group goals to be accomplished. The leader can give rewards to his or her followers in the form of praise or pay increase or promotion for accomplishment of the group goal or task. This has positive impact on attitudes, satisfaction and performance of the followers. In return, they respect the leader and give due regard for his or her status and esteem and believe in his or her heightened influence. As you are already aware, a leader emphasises initiating structural change when followers do not perform very well. He or she increases his or her emphasis on consideration when the followers do a good job. In return, the perception of his or her followers of his or her being an effective leader increases. Hence the leader and the followers mutually affect each other.
3) Social Learning Theories
This theory by Bandura (1977) states that there is a continuous reciprocal interaction between person, environment and behaviour as shown in Figure I.
Figure I : Reciprocal Determinism in Social Learning
Person and environment function in conjunction with the behaviour itself and reciprocally interact to determine behaviour. A person, through his or her actions, produces the environmental conditions that affect his or her behaviour in a reciprocal fashion. The experience generated by behaviour also partly determines what a person becomes and can do. This in turn affects subsequent behaviour. The theory is called social learning theory because, individuals learn in an environment in the process of interacting with each other which is a social process. You will appreciate the application of this theory in understanding the behaviour of a leader and the continuous reciprocal interaction between the person (leader’s cognitions) and environment (including subordinates and their needs, experiences, objectives in the organisation, abilities, skills, energy performance, etc. known as contingencies that regulate their behaviour).Thus a social learning approach to leadership can be shown as in Figure II.
(includes subordinates and their behavioural
contingencies which regulate their behaviour.)
Figure II : A Social Learning Approach to Leadership
The three aspects of this theory of leadership assume that the leader knows how his or her behaviour is controlled by various needs, situations and experiences that one undergoes. The leader and the subordinates jointly attempt to discover ways in which they can manage their individual behaviour to produce mutually satisfying as well as organisationally productive outcomes. In this approach, the leader and subordinates have a negotiable and interactive relationship. They are continuously aware of how they can modify or influence each other’s behaviour by giving the rewards or holding back the performance respectively.
4) Managerial Grid Theory
Leaders can be oriented towards both tasks and persons. This theory by Blake and Mouton (1978) has a popular application of both task and person orientation. According to this theory leaders are most effective when they achieve a high and balanced concern for people and for tasks. Each leader can be rated somewhere along each of the axes from 1 to 9 depending on his or her orientation as shown in Figure III.
Figure III : Interaction between Person and Task Orientations
Although there can be 81 possible combinations you should try to understand the 5 types that are shown in the diagram. These will give you a basic understanding of the theory, on which you can base your other combinations.
1. The (9,1) leader is primarily concerned about the task or production. He or she is concerned with his or her responsibility to see that the work is completed. He/she is called a Task-Management Leader.
2. The (1,9 ) leader is primarily concerned for people and only incidentally concerned with production. The leader’s major responsibility is to establish harmonious relationships among subordinates and to provide a secure and pleasant work atmosphere. He/she is called a as Country Club Management Leader.
3. The (1,1) leader is concerned with neither production nor people. He or she rises to stay out of the way and not become involved in the conflict between the necessity for production and the attainment of good working relationship. He or she is called as Impoverish Managerial Leader.
4. The (5,5) leader reflects a middle ground position and is called as Middle of the Road Management Leader. He or she seeks to compromise between high production and employee satisfaction.
5. The (9,9) leader is extremely concerned about the task and also the people. He or she is concerned to see that the work accomplishment is from committed people; interdependence through a ‘common stake’ in organisation; purpose leads to relationship of trust and respect. He/she is called a Team Management Leader.
5) Contingency Theory of Leadership
Regarding this theory Fiedler (1967) states that a leader may become effective if the situation is favourable in three ways. These are: good leader-member relations showing acceptance of the leader by the group; details of the task spelled out to the leader’s position; and a great deal of authority and power is formally attributed to the leader’s position. With these three favourable situations and his or her style of functioning, a leader will be effective. When the situation is very favourable or very unfavourable to the leader, the task-oriented leader is effective. When the situation is moderately favourable to the leader the person oriented leader is effective.
Example (of moderately A leader with good interpersonal relationships may be favourable situation to developing a new policy that will have great impact on the person-oriented leader) work group. The situation is relatively vague but derately favourable. The Task is not very well defined and the
member relation is good. The leader is likely to be effective
as he would like to consult the members and consider their
thoughts and ideas. When the new policy gets approved, the
situation becomes more favourable to him. 207
6) Path-goal Leadership Theory
Theory by House (1971) states that the leader smooth out the path towards goals and provides rewards for achieving them.
As a leader, you should understand the needs of the people and their desire to work or behave in a way that accomplishes goals that satisfy those needs. This theory is based on a situation of the above kind. If you know the need of the person and his or her desire to work and he or she is able to accomplish the work, you can reward to make him or her feel happy and satisfied. In essence, you are doing three things; One, you are motivating the members of the group by clarifying the path to personal rewards that result from attaining personal goals. You have thus ‘fixed’ him or her on the job and made him or her see that his or her performance can lead to positive or negative rewards. Two, you have already made the path-goal clear to the member and also told him or her about what the job-requires. You need not say too many things about the job to him or her as this may decrease the interest in the work and deter performance. Three, you must offer the reward to the member of the group who actually accomplishes the task. Your rewards may be a praise or increase in the pay or promotion of the member to a higher position. Your judgement about the desirability of the member to a higher position is crucial. Your judgement about the desirability of the member’s effort and the goal helps you to decide whether a reward can be given.
It is very important for the leader to know every member as a person, in order to use a style to get the best out of the member. For example, a task-oriented leader is preferred by a highly achievement-oriented member, whereas a person-oriented leader is preferred by a person who needs a good deal of affiliation with others. Similarly it does good for the leader to know each situation to adjust his or her style of functioning for better results. With a clear task on hand, members feel satisfied if the leader is supporting them. They may not show a lot of output, but they are satisfied. On the other hand with a less clear or more vague task on hand, members show more output, if the leader directs them to work better. The member in this situation may not be very satisfied.
In most of the Indian work settings, it is usually observed that members are quite dependent on the leader or the superior. They also are quite conscious of their status, but have very little commitment to work. Singh (1980) suggests that the leader who is task-oriented and nurtures the dependence of members on him is most effective in dealing with such members. He or she can get the work done in his nurturant task style from the members of group. To a great extent, he knows characteristics of the members’ work group, which he utilises in making the leadership style-oriented, effective and getting the work done.
From the above discussion, it is clear that a leader is a person who has ability to persuade others to get the work done. You must have seen a person having the title of a leader. He or she may by very popular, but may not have the ability of leadership. Many leaders try to become popular by agreeing with everyone, thus avoiding any kind of conflict. Their influence on the subordinate or members of the work group may not be very lasting. There are leaders, who by virtue of their ability to exercise authority and power show better influence on members. It is therefore necessary for you to understand the authority of a leader and his or her sources of power, which help him or her to exercise influence on the subordinates.
15.4 LEADERSHIP AND INFLUENCE PROCESS : TYPES OF POWER
Authority is the right to command and extract obedience from others. It comes from organisation and it allows the leader to use power. Power is the ability to exercise influence or control over others.
In the functioning of a leader the ability to guide the action of others is achieved through his or her authority. Carrying out of these decisions is accomplished because of the power of the leader. You will see the relationship between the authority and power of a leader as we go further to understand various types of power.
1) Legitimate Power: This power comes to the leader when the organisation’s authority is accepted. It comes from the rules of the organisation. For e.g. parents, teachers, managers, police, etc. have legitimate power only when their authority is accepted in the positions they hold.
2) Expert Power: This is the power of knowledge and skill of special kind that are important in getting the job done. A person’s professional competence or knowledge gives him or her the expert power. The credibility increases and he or she can lead other persons to trust the judgements and decisions taken by the leader. A leader may not be an expert in all fields, but one can certainly take the help of experts in particular fields as and when required.
3) Charismatic Power: This is the power of attraction or devotion, the desire of one person to admire another. A subordinate feels a positive attraction towards a leader by identifying oneself, with the leader, or gets influenced by the leader’s attractive power. This power helps the subordinate to understand and value the leader so much that one understands and acts according to the expectations of the boss or the leader. It helps one to act as one’s own boss, and behave in ways one thinks the boss will want.
4) Reward Power: This power is the present or potential ability to reward for worthy behaviour. The superior or the leader has the power to give tangible rewards such as promotion, office space, time off from work, attractive work assignments and help to the subordinate. Also phychological rewards like praise, appreciation, approval and recognition can be given by the leader or the superior to the subordinate. The subordinate has to believe that the leader has access to higher authorities, therefore, the leader can give rewards. This reward power of the leader can also increase the leader’s charismatic and legitimate power.
5) Coercive Power This is the ability to threaten or punish. The leader can give tangible punishment like dismissal, demotion, low rating, less satisfying work assignments etc. Psychological punishments include criticism, avoidance, disapproval or satirical remarks etc. on the subordinate. The reward power helps to avoid something undesirable. Self-esteem of the subordinate increases because of reward power and decreases because of punishment or coercive power. Even a subordinate may withdraw or break the rules or become hostile. One may not feel attracted towards the charismatic power of the leader and at times may ignore the leaders legitimate power. Having seen the reasons for differences between the authority and power of the leader, you should know the type of leaders as understood on the basis of their authority and power.
Beside the power aspect one should also account for the following:
i) Formal Leader : A formal leader is selected by the organisation. For example, a manager is a formal leader by virtue of the authority coming from the organisation. He or she influences others to help accomplish the goals of the organisation or unit. Such a leadership lasts over a long period of time.
ii) Informal Leader An informal leader is chosen by the group. Thus, all managers are leaders if their authority is accepted, but not all leaders are managers. Informal leadership is leadership without position and may shift from one person to another. It may last for a brief time. Most people are leaders at one time or the other and they can have influence on others as defined by the concept of leadership itself.
The ideal leader is the one who can combine the formal and informal leadership simultaneously within himself or herself.
15.5 SUCCESSFUL VERSUS EFFECTIVE LEADER
As we have seen in the preceding discussion, leadership is the activity of influencing people to strive willingly for group objectives. It is the ability to persuade others to get something done. So the leader attempts to have some effect on the behaviour of another, which we call attempted leadership. The response to this attempt may or may not be successful. A basic responsibility of managers in any work organisation is to get the work done with and through people. The success of managers is measured by the output or productivity of the group they lead. Therefore, we should clearly distinguish between successful versus effective leader.
We should try to understand the difference between success and effectiveness. Success has to do with how the individual or the group behaves. Effectiveness describes the internal state or predisposition of an individual or a group and is thus attitudinal in nature.
You may have noticed that individuals who are interested in success tend to emphasise their position power. They use close supervision on the work on their associates. If they have to be effective, they have to use their personal power as well as their general supervision.
Examples of successful and effective individuals can be noticed if one understands the underlying acceptance of the superior by the subordinate. In the examination hall, a certain kind of teachers fear that if they leave the hall for a while the student will indulge in copying and exchanging notes. There are yet another kind of teachers who leave the examination hall, but the students never behave differently.
Let us work at family level which is a less formal organisation. Parents can be successful and effective by using their position and personal power. The children easily accept the goals of the family as their own. Parents who use position power and a closer supervision, are likely to face a kind of revolt or disobeying attitude among their children not accepting the goals set by the parents for the family. With the absence of the parents, the whole house becomes topsy-turvy. This can never happen in a family where parents create a good deal of trust between them and the children by exercising their personal power of love and discipline. In such a situation the children in the absence of parents do not behave differently than if their parents were there.
Leaders are successful, but ineffective when they have a short-run influence over the behaviour of others. They must try to be both successful and effective to have long-term influence for leading others towards productivity and developing the organisation as a whole. The most important conclusion from the above discussion is that the managers must understand their own abilities and their impact on others.
Check Your Progress-2
1) What do you understand by Social learning theory?
2) Define various types of powers.
3) What would you do to be a successful leader?
15.6 LET US SUM UP
In this Unit you have been exposed to leadership as a process of influence on others to work willingly for group objectives. You have also come across different leadership styles, such as Human relations style, theory X and Y style. Authoritarian, Democratic and Laissez-faire style, Employee-oriented and Production-orientation styles, Consideration and Initiating Structure styles and Scientific Managerial styles. Styles have been related to various theories of leadership such as Trait theory, Group and Exchange theory, Social Learning theory, Managerial Grid theory, Contingency Theory and Path-goal theory.
In the context of leadership and influence process, a distinction was drawn between authority and power. Five types of power such as legitimate power, reward power, expert power, charismatic power, and 210
coercive power were explained. Based on the types of power, we discussed two types of leaders− formal and informal. We also attempted to distinguish between a successful and an effective leader.
15.7 KEY WORDS
Authoritarian Style : The assumption that the power of leaders derived from the position they occupy and that people are innately lazy and unreliable.
Contingency Theory : A theory that considers an organisation’s objective, environment and leadership skills, as interacting and affecting the effectiveness of a leader.
Group and Exchange : These theories state that the leader provides more benefits and rewards Theories of Leadership burdens or costs for followers who help him achieve the goal of the
Hawthorne Effect : When worker’s behaviour changes and productivity increases because the workers become aware of their importance.
Initiating Structure : Reflects the extent to which individuals are likely to define and structure their roles and those of their subordinates towards goal attainment.
Legitimate Power : The power comes when the organisation’s authority is accepted. It is power that stems from implicit or explicit rules.
Situational Management : Skill in changing the style demands of one or more situational elements so that managerial effectiveness increases.
Situational Manipulation : Changing the style demands of one or more situational elements so that personal effectiveness increases.
15.8 CLUES TO ANSWERS
1) Read Theory X in Sec. 15.2.
2) What ever be your Managerial level, in tourism services you have to provide leadership. As such you must be aware of various leadership styles so as to use them as per the situational requirement.
Check Your Progress-2
1) Read Sec. 15.3 point 3.
2) Base your answer on the definitions mentioned in Sec. 15.4.
3) Read Sec. 15.5.